Monday, 2 July 2018

What is genetically modified food?

Genetically modified food: 


Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species. Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.
                            

Pros: Insect Resistance

Some GMO foods have been modified to make them more resistant to insect pests. The University of California in San Diego reports that a toxic bacterium can be added to crops to make them insect repellent, yet safe for human use. This can reduce the amount of pesticide chemicals used on the plants, thus potentially reducing exposure to pesticides.

Cons: Allergic Reactions


GMO foods can present significant allergy risks to people, according to Brown University. Genetic modification often mixes or adds proteins that weren't indigenous to the original plant or animal, causing new allergic reactions in the human body. In some cases, proteins from an organism that you're allergic to may be added to an organism that you weren't originally allergic to, prompting the same allergic reaction experienced from the first organism.

Pros: Environmental Protection


Oklahoma State University reports that the increase of GMO crops and animals often requires less chemicals, time and tools, and may help to reduce environmental pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil erosion. This can improve the general beauty and health of the environment surrounding farms and contribute to the sustaining of better air and water quality, which can indirectly benefit your personal well-being

Cons: Decreased Antibiotic Efficacy


Some GMO foods have had antibiotic features built into them to make them immune or resistant to diseases or viruses, according to Iowa State University. When you eat them, these antibiotic markers persist in your body and can make actual antibiotic medications less effective. The university warns that such ingestion of GMO foods and regular exposure to antibiotics may be contributing to the decreased effectiveness of antibiotic drugs that is being noticed in hospitals around the world.

Pros: More Nutritious Foods


The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations reports that some GMO foods have been engineered to be more nutritious in terms of mineral or vitamin content. Not only does this help you get the nutrients you need, it can also play a significant role in battling malnutrition in the developing world. The United Nations advises that vitamin A-enhanced rice is helping to reduce global vitamin A deficiencies.

Cons: Gene Transfer


A constant risk of GMO foods is that the modified genes of the organisms may escape into the wild. Brown University warns that herbicide-resistant genes from commercial crops may cross into the wild weed population, thus creating "superweeds" that are impossible to kill with herbicides. A related risk is that the escape of genetically enhanced animals and vegetation can create new super-organisms that can out-compete natural animal and plant populations to drive certain species into extinction.


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10 Top food additives to avoid

Food Additives:

Food additives have been used for centuries to enhance the appearance and flavor of food and prolong shelf life. However, do these food additives really “add” any value to your food?

Food additives find their way into our foods to help ease processing, packaging, and storage, but how do we know which food additives are in that box of macaroni and cheese, and why does it have such a long shelf life?

A typical American household spends about 90 percent of their food budget on processed foods and in doing so they get exposed to a plethora of artificial food additives, many of which can have serious consequences to your health.

Some food additives are worse than others. Here’s a list of the top food additives to avoid:


1. Artificial Sweeteners


Aspartame, (E951) more popularly known as Nutrasweet and Equal, is found in foods labeled "diet" or "sugar-free". Aspartame is believed to be carcinogenic and accounts for more reports of adverse reactions than all other foods and food additives combined. Aspartame is not your friend. Aspartame is a neurotoxin and carcinogen. Known to erode intelligence and affect short-term memory, the components of this toxic sweetener may lead to a wide variety of ailments including brain tumor, diseases like lymphoma, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue, emotional disorders like depression and anxiety attacks, dizziness, headaches, nausea, mental confusion, migraines and seizures. Acesulfame-K, a relatively new artificial sweetener found in baking goods, gum and gelatin, has not been thoroughly tested and has been linked to kidney tumors. Read more about the dangers of Aspartame here.

Found in diet or sugar-free sodas, diet coke, coke zero, jello (and other gelatins), desserts, sugar-free gum, drink mixes, baking goods, table top sweeteners, cereal, breath mints, pudding, kool-aid, ice tea, chewable vitamins, toothpaste.

2. High Fructose Corn Syrup

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a highly-refined artificial sweetener which has become the number one source of calories in America. It is found in almost all processed foods. HFCS packs on the pounds faster than any other ingredient, increases your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, and contributes to the development of diabetes and tissue damage, among other harmful effects.

Found in most processed foods, bread, candy, flavored yogurts, salad dressings, canned vegetables, cereals.

3. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG / E621)

MSG is an amino acid used as a flavor enhancer in soups, salad dressings, chips, frozen entrees, and many restaurant foods. MSG is known as an excitotoxin, a substance which overexcites cells to the point of damage or death. Studies show that regular consumption of MSG may result in adverse side effects which include depression, disorientation, eye damage, fatigue, headaches, and obesity. MSG affects the neurological pathways of the brain and disengages the "I'm full" function which explains the effects of weight gain.

Found in Chinese food (Chinese Restaurant Syndrome ) many snacks, chips, cookies, seasonings, most Campbell Soup products, frozen dinners and lunch meats. 

4. Trans Fat

Trans fat is used to enhance and extend the shelf life of food products and is among the most dangerous substances that you can consume. Found in deep-fried fast foods and certain processed foods made with margarine or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, trans fats are formed by a process called hydrogenation. Numerous studies show that trans fat increase LDL cholesterol levels while decreasing HDL (“good”) cholesterol, increases the risk of heart attacks, heart disease, and strokes, and contributes to increased inflammation, diabetes, and other health problems. Oils and fat are now forbidden on the Danish market if they contain trans fatty acids exceeding 2 per cent, a move that effectively bans partially hydrogenated oils.

Found in margarine, chips and crackers, baked goods, fast foods.

5. Common Food Dyes

Studies show that artificial colorings which are found in soda, fruit juices, and salad dressings, may contribute to behavioral problems in children and lead to a significant reduction in IQ. Animal studies have linked some food colorings to cancer. Watch out for these ones:

Blue #1 and Blue #2 (E133)

Banned in Norway, Finland, and France. May cause chromosomal damage.

Found in candy, cereal, soft drinks, sports drinks and pet foods.

Red dye # 3 (also Red #40 – a more current dye) (E124)

Banned in 1990 after 8 years of debate from use in many foods and cosmetics. This dye continues to be on the market until supplies run out! Has been proven to cause thyroid cancer and chromosomal damage in laboratory animals, may also interfere with brain-nerve transmission.

Found in fruit cocktail, maraschino cherries, cherry pie mix, ice cream, candy, bakery products and more!

Yellow #6 (E110) and Yellow Tartrazine (E102)

Banned in Norway and Sweden. Increases the number of kidney and adrenal gland tumors in laboratory animals, may cause chromosomal damage.

Found in American cheese, macaroni and cheese, candy and carbonated beverages, lemonade and more!

6. Sodium Sulfite (E221)

Preservative used in wine-making and other processed foods. According to the FDA, approximately one in 100 people is sensitive to sulfites in food. The majority of these individuals are asthmatic, suggesting a link between asthma and sulfites. Individuals who are sulfite sensitive may experience headaches, breathing problems, and rashes. In severe cases, sulfites can actually cause death by closing down the airway altogether, leading to cardiac arrest.

Found in wine and dried fruit.

7. Sodium Nitrate/Sodium Nitrite

Sodium nitrate (or sodium nitrite) is used as a preservative, coloring, and flavoring in bacon, ham, hot dogs, lunch meats, corned beef, smoked fish and other processed meats. This ingredient, which sounds harmless, is actually highly carcinogenic once it enters the human digestive system. There, it forms a variety of nitrosamine compounds that enter the bloodstream and wreak havoc with a number of internal organs: the liver and pancreas in particular. Sodium nitrite is widely regarded as a toxic ingredient, and the USDA actually tried to ban this additive in the 1970's but was vetoed by food manufacturers who complained they had no alternative for preserving packaged meat products. Why does the industry still use it? Simple: this chemical just happens to turn meats bright red. It's actually a color fixer, and it makes old, dead meats appear fresh and vibrant.

Found in hotdogs, bacon, ham, lunch meat, cured meats, corned beef, smoked fish or any other type of processed meat.

8. BHA And BHT (E320)

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are preservatives found in cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, and vegetable oils. This common preservative keeps foods from changing color, changing the flavor or becoming rancid. Affects the neurological system of the brain, alters behavior and has a potential to cause cancer. BHA and BHT are oxidants which form cancer-causing reactive compounds in your body.

Found in potato chips, gum, cereal, frozen sausages, enriched rice, lard, shortening, candy, jello.

9. Sulfur Dioxide (E220)

Sulfur additives are toxic and in the United States of America, the Federal Drugs Administration have prohibited their use on raw fruit and vegetables. Adverse reactions include bronchial problems particularly in those prone to asthma, hypotension (low blood pressure), flushing, tingling sensations or anaphylactic shock. It also destroys vitamins B1 and E. Not recommended for consumption by children. The International Labour Organization says to avoid E220 if you suffer from conjunctivitis, bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma, or cardiovascular disease.

Found in beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, and potato products.

10. Potassium Bromate

An additive used to increase volume in some white flour, bread, and rolls, potassium bromate is known to cause cancer in animals. Even small amounts in bread can create problems for humans.

Found in bread.
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Friday, 29 June 2018

Food Chemistry 2018

#Food Chemistry 2018 #Platform to gain and Share their knowledge.
#Young scientists, #Doctors, #Students, #Researchers.......
Travel with us to #Toronto, #Canada.
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Thursday, 28 June 2018

Which Bacteria are Responsible for Food-borne Illness?

                      

Which Bacteria are Responsible for Food-borne Illness?

Food-borne illness often shows itself as flu-like symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or fever, so many people may not recognize the illness is caused by bacteria or other pathogens on food.

Thousands of types of bacteria are naturally present in our environment. Not all bacteria cause disease in humans. For example, some bacteria are used beneficially in making cheese and yogurt.

Bacteria that cause disease are called “pathogens.” When certain pathogens enter the food supply, they can cause food-borne illness. Only a few types cause millions of cases of food-borne illness each year. Ironically, most cases of food-borne illness can be prevented. Proper cooking or processing of food destroys bacteria. They can grow in just about any food, but are fond of protein foods, such as meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy products in particular, as well as high-protein vegetables such as beans and grains.

How bacteria get in food


1. Bacteria may be present on products when you purchase them. Raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs are not sterile. Neither is produce such as lettuce, tomatoes, sprouts, and melons.

2. Foods, including safely cooked, ready-to-eat foods, can become cross-contaminated with bacteria introduced on raw products, meat juices, or other contaminated products, or by poor personal hygiene.

The “danger zone”

Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40° and 140° F. To keep food out of this “danger zone,” keep cold food cold and hot food hot.
Store food in the refrigerator (40° F or below) or freezer (0° F or below).
Cook food to 160° F (145° F for roasts, steaks, and chops of beef, veal, and lamb).
Maintain hot cooked food at 140° F.
Reheat cooked food to 165° F.

Some bacteria cause more serious illness than others, but only a few are responsible for the majority of cases. Below is information regarding nine prominent bacteria

Campylobacter jejuni

Found: intestinal tracts of animals and birds, raw milk, untreated water, and sewage sludge.

Transmission: contaminated water, raw milk, and raw or under-cooked meat, poultry, or shellfish.

Symptoms: fever, headache, and muscle pain followed by diarrhea (sometimes bloody), abdominal pain and nausea that appear 2 to 5 days after eating; may last 7 to 10 days.

Clostridium botulinum

Found: widely distributed in nature: in soil and water, on plants, and in intestinal tracts of animals and fish. Grows only in little or no oxygen.

Transmission: bacteria produce a toxin that causes illness. Improperly canned foods, garlic in oil, and vacuum-packaged and tightly wrapped food.

Symptoms: toxin affects the nervous system. Symptoms usually appear within 18 to 36 hours, but can sometimes appear within as few as 4 hours or as many as 8 days after eating; double vision, droopy eyelids, trouble speaking and swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Fatal in 3 to 10 days if not treated.

Clostridium perfringens

Found: soil, dust, sewage, and intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Grows only in little or no oxygen.

Transmission: called “the cafeteria germ” because many outbreaks result from food left for long periods in steam tables or at room temperature. Bacteria destroyed by cooking, but some toxin-producing spores may survive.

Symptoms: diarrhea and gas pains may appear 8 to 24 hours after eating; usually last about 1 day, but less severe symptoms may persist for 1 to 2 weeks.

Escherichia coli O157:H7

Found: intestinal tracts of some mammals, raw milk, unchlorinated water; one of several strains of E. coli that can cause human illness.

Transmission: contaminated water, raw milk, raw or rare ground beef, unpasteurized apple juice or cider, uncooked fruits and vegetables; person-to-person.

Symptoms: diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and malaise; can begin 2 to 5 days after food is eaten, lasting about 8 days. Some, especially the very young, have developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) that causes acute kidney failure. A similar illness, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), may occur in older adults.
Salmonella (over 1600 types)


Found: intestinal tract and feces of animals; Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs.

Transmission: raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat; raw milk and dairy products; seafood.

Symptoms: stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, chills, fever, and headache usually appear 6 to 48 hours after eating; may last 1 to 2 days.

Streptococcus A

Found: noses, throats, pus, sputum, blood, and stools of humans.

Transmission: people-to-food from poor hygiene, ill food handlers, or improper food handling; outbreaks from raw milk, ice cream, eggs, lobster, salads, custard, and pudding allowed to stand at room temperature for several hours between preparation and eating.

Symptoms: sore throat, painful swallowing, tonsillitis, high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, malaise; occurs 1 to 3 days after eating, lasting a few days to about a week.
Listeria monocytogenes

Found: intestinal tracts of humans and animals, milk, soil, leaf vegetables, and processed foods; can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures.

Transmission: soft cheese, raw milk, improperly processed ice cream, raw leafy vegetables, meat, and poultry. Illness caused by bacteria that do not produce toxin.

Symptoms: fever, chills, headache, backache, sometimes abdominal pain and diarrhea; 12 hours to 3 weeks after ingestion; may later develop more serious illness (meningitis or spontaneous abortion in pregnant women); sometimes just fatigue.

Shigella (over 30 types)

Found: human intestinal tract; rarely found in other animals.

Transmission: person-to-person by fecal-oral route; fecal contamination of food and water. Most outbreaks result from food, especially salads, prepared and handled by workers using poor personal hygiene.

Symptoms: disease referred to as “shigellosis” or bacillary dysentery. Diarrhea containing blood and mucus, fever, abdominal cramps, chills, vomiting; 12 to 50 hours from ingestion of bacteria; can last a few days to 2 weeks. Sometimes, no symptoms seen.

Staphylococcus aureus

Found: on humans (skin, infected cuts, pimples, noses, and throats).

Transmission: people-to-food through improper handling. Multiply rapidly at room temperature to produce a toxin that causes illness.

Symptoms: severe nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea occur 1 to 6 hours after eating; recovery within 2 to 3 days—longer if severe dehydration occurs.

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Wednesday, 27 June 2018

Cure your disease by your foods

Health benefits of foods


1. Promotes Oral Health

This mighty fruit is known to maintain oral health. Thanks to malic acid that keeps your teeth white and shiny. It is widely used by companies to prepare commercial whitening toothpaste. It is worth mentioning that chewing apple stimulates saliva production that keeps risks of tooth decay at bay.

2. It Maintains Cardiovascular Health

Apples are loaded with pectin, which is a soluble fiber that is known to reduce cholesterol in the blood vessel walls. This process also lowers the risk of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the soluble fiber tie-up with the fats presents in the intestine so that cholesterol won’t rise in your body. Many studies have proved that people who consume apples regularly are less prone to stroke as compared to those who don’t. This sweet and sour fruit also contains lots of potassium that is known to control high blood pressure preventing you from the risk of heart attack.

3. A Healthy Snack for Diabetics

Apples are considered as one of the healthiest snacks you should indulge in. It is safe for people suffering with Type-2 diabetes, and they can eat it every day without any worry in the world. According to a recent study, munching an apple for breakfast reduces the chance of Type-2 diabetes by 29%. This mouthwatering fruit can also stop certain enzymes from turning into starch instead they transform into a simple sugar that your body requires to produce energy. Moreover, apples are a great way to control insulin as the components found in them are known to release sugar into the bloodstream steadily. The decent quantity of soluble fibers in the fruit also controls blood sugar levels in diabetic patients.

4. It Improves Respiratory Health

You can improve your lung health by consuming apples in any form. Thanks to the components found in the fruit that are known to prevent you from several respiratory problems including, bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.

5. It Fights Cancerous Cells

Being enriched with anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-proliferative qualities and flavonoids, apples have the potential to lower the chance of pancreatic cancer. According to experts regular consumption of apples can also prevent your body from mammary tumors. The oligosaccharides found in apple are said to kill colon cancer cells.

6. Apple Prevents Osteoporosis

This amazing fruit has plenty of phloridzin (a flavonoid), which shields women against osteoporosis. Compound boron found in the apples is also worked to strengthen bones preventing women from further bone problems.

7. It keeps Your Gut Healthy

Experts emphasized on consuming at least one apple daily because being rich in dietary fiber, it is extremely beneficial for intestinal disorders including diverticulitis, stomach cancer, and hemorrhoids. Many studies have proved it as a simple yet effective way to treat diarrhea and constipation. Thanks to the high levels of dietary fiber as they relieve constipation and in case of diarrhea, remove excess water naturally. Moreover, it also performs as a cleanser and detoxifier that flushes out toxic metals including mercury and lead from your body. It is worth mentioning that eating apple regularly also reduces Bacteroides and Clostridiales found in your large intestine.

8. It Maintains Neurological Health

Being enriched with an antioxidant Quercetin, apples can help lower the risk of cellular death, which is usually the result of the oxidization of neurons. Consuming apples is also said to reduce the chance of dementia. You will be surprised to learn that being packed with the high levels of antioxidants and fiber, this mighty fruit can protect you from Parkinson’s disease as well. According to experts, incorporating apples in your daily in the form of juice will increase the production of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter), which results in enhanced memory power.

9. Boost Your Energy Levels

Apples are a great source to get super energized. This is why; experts suggest munching an apple before your workout session. Quercetin and antioxidants ensure your body gets a proper supply of oxygen through enhanced blood circulation. This is ideal for people who indulge in workout sessions and exercise regimes.

10. It Enhances Skin Conditions

You can get rid of old dead dermal cells by eating an apple every day. It is also known to rejuvenate skin cells, boosting collagen production, keeping your skin nice and hydrated. Drinking a glass of fresh apple juice keeps your skin free from all sorts of inflammations, irritations and similar skin problems.

11. It Prevents Premature Aging


Being enriched with vitamins, apple boosts collagen production preventing premature aging and wrinkles. Thanks to vitamin A found in the fruit, which is responsible to keep skin wrinkles and sagging at bay

13. Apples Prevent Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids happen when your anal canal veins swell. This condition can be extremely painful causing pressure in your pelvic and rectal region. Consuming fiber is the simplest way to deal with swollen anal veins, and being loaded with dietary fiber, apples are the perfect solution.

14. It Works as a Detoxifier

Maintaining liver health is essential as it is responsible to remove toxins from your body. You can opt for detox diets, but they aren’t a healthy option. Therefore, in this case, consuming apple juice can become a healthy alternative.

15. It Prevents Cataracts


Many studies have concluded that consuming a diet enriched with antioxidants can prevent cataracts. Consuming apples can help you here as it is said to reduce the development of cataracts.


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Why Food Safety is Important?


Foodborne illnesses are a preventable and underreported public health problem. These illnesses are a burden on public health and contribute significantly to the cost of health care. They also present a major challenge to certain groups of people. Although anyone can get a foodborne illness, some people are at greater risk.

For example:

Children younger than age 4 have the highest incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections from some foodborne pathogens, including Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157, Shigella, and Yersinia.
People older than age 50 and those with reduced immunity are at greater risk for hospitalizations and death from intestinal pathogens commonly transmitted through foods.

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Tuesday, 26 June 2018

Food Chemistry 2018

#Food Chemistry 2018, September 14-15, 2018

#Toronto, #Park Inn by Radisson Toronto Airport West , #175 Derry Road East, Mississauga , #Ontario,L5T 2Z7,#Canada

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